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Class 10 Physics Chapter 1 Notes
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Class 10 Physics Chapter 10 Important Short Questions
- Simple harmonic motion (SHM) is a to-and-fro oscillatory motion in which the acceleration of the body is directly proportional to the displacement of the body from the mean position and is always directed toward the mean position.
- The motion of a mass attached to a spring, a simple pendulum, and that of a ball inside a bowl is SHM.
- The time taken by the simple pendulum to complete one cycle is called its time period. It depends upon the length of the pendulum and is independent of the mass and amplitude of the pendulum.
- The number of cycles completed in one second is called the frequency of a vibrating body. It is reciprocal of the time period.
- The maximum displacement from the mean position of a body performing SHM is called amplitude.
- Wave is a phenomenon of transferring energy from one place to another without the transfer of matter.
- Mechanical waves are those waves that require some medium for their propagation.
- Electromagnetic waves do not require any medium for their propagation.
- Transverse waves are mechanical waves in which particles of the medium vibrate about their mean position perpendicular to the direction of propagation of the waves.
- Compressional (longitudinal) waves are mechanical waves in which particles of the medium vibrate about their mean position along the direction of propagation of the waves.
- The speed (v) of a wave is equal to the product of frequency (f) and wavelength (1) i.e.,v=fλ.
- A ripple tank is a device used to produce water waves and to demonstrate different properties of water waves like reflection, refraction, and diffraction.
- When a wave traveling from one medium falls on the surface of another medium, it may bounce back into the first medium. This phenomenon is called the reflection of waves.
- When waves from one medium enter the second medium at some angle their direction of travel may change. This phenomenon is called the refraction of waves.
- The speed and wavelength of wave change in different media but frequency does not change.
- The bending of waves around obstacles or sharp edges is called the diffraction of waves.
Briefly Explain Answers to Questions
- What is simple harmonic motion? What are the necessary conditions for a body to execute simple harmonic motion?
- Think of several examples of motion in everyday life that are simple harmonic. What are damped oscillations? How does damping progressively reduce the amplitude of oscillation?
- How can you define the term wave? Elaborate the difference between mechanical and electromagnetic waves. Give examples of each.
- Distinguish between longitudinal and transverse waves with suitable examples.
- Draw a transverse wave with an amplitude of 2 cm and a wavelength of 4 cm. Label a crest and trough on the wave.
- Derive a relationship between the velocity, frequency, and wavelength of a wave. Write a formula relating the velocity of a wave to its time period and wavelength.
- Waves are the means of energy transfer without the transfer of matter. Justify this statement with the help of a simple experiment.
- Explain the following properties of waves with reference to the ripple tank experiment:
- a. Reflection b. Refraction c. Diffraction
- Does increasing the frequency of a wave also increase its wavelength? If not, how are these quantities related?
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