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Class 10 Chemistry Chapter 11 Notes
Class 10 Chemistry Chapter 11 Important Short Questions Notes
- Organic compounds are compounds of carbon and hydrogen and their derivatives.
- Compounds made up of carbon and hydrogen are called hydrocarbons. They are alkanes, alkenes, and alkynes.
- Organic compounds are molecular compounds having covalent bonding.
- They form a homologous series of compounds, thus their properties resemble within a series.
- Sources of organic compounds are animals, plants, coal, petroleum, and natural gas.
- Dead plants buried under the Earth’s crust are converted into coal; petroleum and gas. Coal is a blackish solid material.
- Coal is of four types, i.e peat, lignite, bituminous and anthracite.
- Destructive distillation of coal produces; coal gas, ammonical liquor; coal tar, and coke.
- Petroleum is a dark brownish or greenish black colored viscous liquid consisting of several compounds. These compounds are separated by fractional distillation.
- Natural gas is a mixture of low molecular mass hydrocarbons. It is mainly used as fuel.
- Living plants synthesize macromolecules (carbohydrates, proteins, fats, and vitamins).
- Organic compounds can also be synthesized in laboratories ranging from the simplest compounds to complex ones.
- Organic compounds have a wide range of uses. They are used as food, clothing, housing fuel, medicines and to prepare a variety of materials.
- Alkanes are saturated hydrocarbons, alkyl radicals are derivatives of alkanes which are represented by ‘R’.
- An atom or a group of atoms that provide characteristic properties to an organic compound is called a functional group.
- Depending upon the functional groups, organic compounds are classified as alcohols, ethers, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, esters, amines, and alkyl halides.
- What is meant by the term catenation? Give an example of a compound that displays catenation.
- How is coal formed?
- What is the importance of natural gas?
- Justify that organic compounds are used as food.
- How are alkyl radicals formed? Explain with examples.
- What is the difference between n-propyl and isopropyl radicals? Explain with structure.
- Explain different radicals of butane.
- Define functional groups with an example.
- What is an ester group? Write down the formula of ethyl acetate.
- Write down the dot and cross formulae of propane and n-butane.
- Define structural formula. Draw the structural formulae of n-butane and isobutane.
- Write the classification of coal.
- What are heterocyclic compounds? Give two examples.
- Why are benzene and other homologous compounds of benzene called aromatic compounds?
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