10th Class Physics Chapter 18 Important Short Questions 2024

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Class 10 Physics Chapter 18 Notes

Post TopicShort Questions
Book CodePhysics
Class9th Class
Chapter/FullChapter 18
BoardPunjab Board

Class 10 Physics Chapter 18 Short Questions

  • There are two parts of an atom. Its central part is called the nucleus which contains neutrons and protons called nucleons. The nucleus is positively charged and electrons revolve around it in nearly circular orbits.
  • The number of protons present inside a nucleus is called the charge number or the atomic number and is denoted by the letter Z.
  • The sum of neutrons and protons present in a nucleus is called its atomic mass number. It is denoted by the letter A.
  • The atoms of the same element with the same atomic number but different atomic mass numbers are called isotopes.
  • The elements whose atomic number is greater than 82 are unstable. The process of decaying such elements into daughter elements is called natural radioactivity and such elements are called radioactive elements.
  • Radioactivity is a random process that does not depend on space and time.
  • The time during which the atoms of a radioactive element are reduced to one-half is called the half-life of that element.
  • Background radiations are caused by some radioactive elements present in rocks, soil, and water.
  • A process in which the nucleus of an unstable heavy element breaks into two nuclei of lighter elements with the emission of radiation is called nuclear transmutation.
  • The isotopes which emit radiation are called radioactive isotopes. They are used in medicine, agriculture, and industry for a variety of purposes.
  • The age of a dead human, animal, or tree can be estimated by comparing the activity of carbon-14 in the live and dead tree. The technique is called carbon dating.
  • A process in which a heavy nucleus breaks into two nearly equal parts with the release of large energy is called nuclear fission.
  • A process in which two light nuclei diffuse to form a heavier nucleus with the release of an enormous amount of energy is called a fusion reaction.

REVIEW QUESTIONS

  • What is the difference between atomic number and atomic mass number? Give a symbolical representation of a nuclide.
  • What do you mean by the term radioactivity? Why some elements are radioactive but some are not?
  • How can we make radioactive elements artificially? Describe a suitable example.
  • What are the three basic radioactive decay processes and how do they differ from each other?
  • Write the alpha decay process. Identify the parent and daughter nuclei in 234 91 Pa in this decay.
  • Explain whether the atomic number can increase during nuclear decay. Support your answer with an example.
  • What do you understand by the half-life of a radioactive element?
  • Is radioactivity a spontaneous process? Elaborate your answer with a simple experiment.
  • What is meant by background radiation? Enlist some sources of background radiation.
  • Describe two uses of radioisotopes in medicine, industry, or research.
  • What are two common radiation hazards? Briefly describe the precautions that are taken against them.
  • Complete this nuclear reaction: +? + 2. Does this reaction 235 140 192U X54 0 n involve fission or fusion? Justify your answer.
  • Nuclear fusion reaction is a more reliable and sustainable source of energy than nuclear fission chain reaction. Justify this statement with plausible arguments.
  • A nitrogen nuclide decays to become an oxygen nuclide by emitting a 14 7 N electron. Show this process with an equation
Physics Questions
Physics Chapter 18 Short Questions

The topic of this post is Class 10 Physics Chapter (9) 18 Notes Short Questions without any PDF file. We add this post to the 10th Class Physics Notes category where students can easily find the Chapter 9 Short Questions type study solutions and much more that students need to be related to the Class 10 Physics Book.

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